Una pequeña pausa después de alimentar los peces y recorrer las piscinas, Tumaco, Colombia. Photo by Diego Lagos/El Observatorio de Restitución y Regulación de Derechos de Propiedad Agraria.

This working paper, originally published in Spanish, presents the findings of the second of two surveys of participants in Colombia’s national crop substitution programme, the PNIS. It makes a strategic contribution to the evaluation of public policy, since it concerns how the measures have been received by the target population, which complements existing data on the progress of its implementation. It shows that:

  • the coexistence of substitution and forced eradication is a breach of the Peace Agreement
  • during the Duque government, state non-compliance with the PNIS has worsened
  • the PNIS has substantially decreased household incomes
  • there are systematic barriers to accessing substitution
  • substitution lacks security guarantees for leaders and participants in the programme
  • substitution lacks community participation or consultation
  • non-compliance with the Comprehensive Rural Reform affects the implementation of the PNIS
  • substitution has been successively de-funded.